Unit Nine Section B
Part One: New Words
1. dissolve v. 1. (cause to ) come to an end （使）结束，（使）解体
The tension in the office just dissolves when she walks out.
The society was dissolved e to lack of members.
2. be absorbed by a liquid 溶解
Keep stirring the tea until the sugar has dissolved.
Dissolve two spoons of powder in warm water.
2. overtake v. 1. (of sth. unpleasant) reach suddenly 突然降临于，意外侵袭
The family was overtaken by tragedy several years ago, and
they still haven't recovered. 几年前，这家人突然遭遇不幸，现在还没恢复过来。
She was overtaken by sorrow when her husband died. 丈夫去世时，她悲痛欲绝。
2. come from behind and pass 追上，赶上，超过
It's dangerous to overtake another car on a bend.
Exports have already overtaken last year's figure.
3. vary v. (cause to) change or be different （使）不同，更改，改变
Salary scales vary from state to state. 工资高低因州而异。
The samples varied in quality but were generally acceptable.
4. optional a. chosen or not as one wishes可任意选择的，非强制的，随意的
The charge for going into the museum is optional.
Art and music are optional. 艺术和音乐是选修的。
5. inflation n. [U] a general continuous increase in prices 通货膨胀
I hope the new measures will contribute to preventing the house
price inflation. 我希望新的措施将有助于防止房价上涨。
Inflation usually affects many countries at the same time.
6. weave v. 1. twist (long objects) together; make (sth.) by doing this 编织
It takes great skill to weave a basket from grasses.
She is good at weaving straw into hats. 她擅长编草帽。
2. put facts together to make a story编造，汇编
She wove the story around a specific theme.
The biography weaves together the various aspects of Einstein's
7. casual a. 1. showing little concern 漠不关心的，不经意的
She walked into the room with no more than a casual glance at the
children standing outside. 她走进房间，只是冷漠地瞥了一眼站在外面的孩子们。
Although close to tears, she tried to make her voice sound casual.
2. (of clothes) not formal (衣服等)非正式的，随便的
casual wear 便服
For some people casual clothes mean a T-shirt and old jeans.
3. happening by chance or without planning 偶尔的，偶然的
Most of the building work was done by casual labour.
She had a number of casual jobs ring the university holidays.
8. migrate vi. 1. move from one place to another 移居，迁移
Millions have migrated to the cities because they could not
survive in rural areas. 数百万人因无法在乡村生存而移居城市。
Pioneers from New England migrated to all parts of the United States. 来自新英格兰的开拓者迁移到美国各地。
2. (of birds and fish) travel to a different place迁徙,定期迁移,洄游
In September these birds migrate 2,000 miles south to a warmer climate.九月里，这些鸟迁徙2,000英里到达气候温暖的南方。
These birds migrate northwards in spring and southwards in fall.
9. scrape v. 1.live with no more than the necessary money 勉强维持
He scraped a living (by) selling old clothes.
2. remove (a top layer, etc.), esp. by using a sharp edge刮，擦
Jack scraped his knee on the wall as he was climbing over it.
I was woken up by the branches scraping against my bedroom
n. 1. [C, U] the act or sound of scraping 刮，擦；刮擦声
I haven't hurt myself seriously — it's just a scrape.
I hate the scrape of chalk on a blackboard.
2. [C] a difficult situation caused by one's own foolish behavior
The children are always getting into scrapes.
10. subtract v. take (a number) from another number 减去，扣除
You have to subtract 25% tax from the sum you receive.
When you subtract 3 from 7, the answer is 4. 7减去3等于4。
11. trim vt. 1. remove or rece what is unnecessary 削减，减少，缩减
We have to trim a lot off our travel budget.
The article's too long. Can you trim it?
2. make sth. neater, smaller, better by cutting parts from it 修理，修剪
Could you just trim my hair? 你能帮我稍稍修剪一下头发吗？
My grandfather would spend hours in front of the mirror trimming
his beard. 我的祖父在镜子前要花上数小时来修理胡须。
Part Two: Text Analysis
1. serve as: perform certain ties; fulfil the purpose of 担任...；作...用，起...作用
He then served three years as an officer. 他后来当了三年军官。
Her illness certainly served as a means of getting attention.
The children used an old sheet to serve as a curtain. 孩子们用一张旧床单做帘子。
2. be related to: be connected or associated with与... ...相关，与... ...有联系
The rise in the cost of living is directly related to the price of oil. 生活费用的上涨与石油价格有直接关系。
Heart disease is related to stress. 心脏病与精神压力有关。
3. a variety of: a lot of things that are different from each other, but of the same general type
The college offers a wide variety of courses for women wanting to return to ecation. 该大学为有志返校接受教育的女子提供了各种课程。
Rowe always kept a variety of pills and medicines in his bedroom closet. 罗威总是在卧室的柜子里存放各种各样的药丸和药剂。
4. dozens of: lots of; a large number of people or things, etc., but not more than a hundred许多，数十个
I've tried phoning her dozens of times. 我给她打了很多次电话。
5. by the time: when到... ...的时候
By the time this letter reaches you I will have left the country. 你收到这封信时，我已离开了这个国家。
By the time I arrived at the stadium they had lost the match. 等我到达体育馆时，他们已经输掉了比赛。
6. care for: be responsible for; look after照看，看护
Who cared for her while she was ill? 她生病时谁照顾她？
Uncle Dick is very good at caring for sick animals.迪克大叔照顾生病的动物很在行。
7. north: n. the direction opposite to the south
I live in the north of China. 我居住在中国北部。
Leeds is in the north of England. 利兹位于英格兰北部。
一、21世纪大学英语(部分)： 1 2 3
二、新视野大学英语读写教程(部分)： 1 2 3 4
unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 unit 6 unit 7 unit 8
unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5
unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 unit 6 unit 7 unit 8 unit 9
unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5
unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 unit 6 unit 7 unit 8
unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 unit 6 unit 7
unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5 unit 6
unit 1 unit 2 unit 3 unit 4 unit 5
:abab123./bbs/down.asp?=1577986 这个网上有，需要注册，需要三个积分。 各种英语。。。 看看吧。
新视野大学英语视听说教程第二册答案 仅要答案 不要原文, 谁有新视野大学英语视听说教程第2册答案
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 1 International
1.B 2.D 3.C 4.D 5.C 6.C 7.B 8.B 9.A 10.C
1.D 2.D 3.A 4.B 5.C
Understanding a Passage
1.C 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.B
1.upset 2.sick 3.law 4.harmless 5.break
6.replaced 7.memories 8.natural 9.birthday 10.appreciate
1. Sit quietly and listen to him 2. A blank stare
3. Put it a different way 4. speak up in class
5. In turn/ a great deal of
Task 1 1.D 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.B
Task 2 1.C 2.A 3.B 4.A 5.C
1.the age, size and future 2.seventy years ago
3.increase with distance 4.late that month
5.a light year 6.distances in space
7.other measurements 8.support the idea
9.slow down and break up 10.or possibly even older
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 2 All that Glitters Is Olympic Gold
1.B 2.B 3.C 4.C 5.C 6.A 7.A 8.A 9.C 10.A
1.D 2.B 3.C 4.D 5.D
Understanding a Passage
1.C 2.B 3.C 4.D 5.D
1.training 2.touch 3.understand 4.appreciate 5.trouble
6.fighting 7.three 8.honest 9.cry 10.borrow
Task 1 1.D 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.A
Task 2 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.B 5.D
1.on the ball 2.did something unexpected
3.at the job or activity 4.hit it out of the park
5.think it over 6.is very suessful
7.plete a job or activity 8.did something wrong
9.how much it is worth 10.close to my selling price
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 3 Pros and Cons of mixed Marriages
1.D 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.B 9. A 10.B
1.A 2.B 3.D 4.D 5.A
Understanding a Passage
1.B 2.D 3.D 4.A 5.B
1.night 2.definitely 3.love 4.wise 5.My wife
6.26 7.died 8.youngest 9.goes by 10.gotten old
Listening and Speaking
1.physically OK 2.To the kitchen 3.a bowl of ice cream
4.I don’t need to write it down 5. a plate of bacon and eggs
Task 1 1.A 2.B 3.D 4.C 5.D
Task 2 1.B 2.D 3.B 4.C 5.A
1.they care about 2.performed marriages .
3.wait longer to get married 4.bring people together
5.plan a blind date 6.follow their cultural traditions
7.meant for the other 8.establishing a relationship
9.improve their chances 10.meet someone over the Inter
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 4 A Hunk of Burning Love
1.D 2.B 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.D 7.A 8.C 9.C 10.B
1.B 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.B
Understanding a Passage
1.C 2.B 3.D 4.B 5.A
1.certain 2.oasionally 3.e along 4.receiving 5.delight
6.gathering 7.natural 8.special 9.weling 10.reminding
Task 1 1.A 2.C 3.A 4.B 5.B
Task 2 1.D 2.C 3.A 4.C 5.B
1.answer a question 2.to be admitted
3.copies of all school records 4.the results of the TOFEL
5.minimum aeptable TOFEL score 6.additional English training
7.conditionally aept students 8.taking regular class
9.provides more information 10.suessfully pass classes
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 5 Enough of worries and tears
1.C 2.D 3.A 4.C 5.A 6.B 7.D 8.D 9.D 10.C
1.B 2.D 3.A 4.D 5.A
Understanding a Passage
1.D 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.C
1.everything the light touches 2.rises and falls 3.will rise with you 4.shadowy place 5.never go there 6.getting your way
7.exists together 8.respect all creatures 9.let me explain
10. in the great circle of life
Task 1 1.B 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.C
Task 2 1.A 2.C 3.D 4.D 5.B
1.one million new cases 2.have increased 3.drug treatments
4.gathered results 5.145,000 6.before it has spread
7.from ing back 8.rece by half 9.within 15 years
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 6 What’s in a name?
1.T 2.F 3.T
1.B 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.C 8.A 9.B 10.C
1.A 2.D 3.D 4.C 5.B
1.C 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.D
1.important decisions 2.As in 3.agreed on
4.What’s wrong with 5.I mean 6.wait a minute
7.what a challenge 8.what he’s doing? 9.gets his way
Task 1 1.B 2.C 3.B 4.C 5.C
Task 2 1.B 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.D
1.federal government 2.ecation reform law 3.be forced to
4.place importance on 5.calls for 6.main goal
7.by 40 percent 8.low-ine and minority
9.poorly performing students 10.free after-school help
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 7 Relax or Die
1.B 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.A 6.D 7.B 8.C 9. D 10.C
1.D 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.B
Understanding a Passage
1.C 2.C 3.D 4.D 5.B
1.flight 2.heartbroken 3.tries real hard
4.witnessing a miracle 5.pletely 6.marriage
7.special oasions 8.sacrifices 9.dream
Task 1 1.D 2.D 3.A 4.C 5.A
Task 2 1.D 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.D
1.severe mental health 2.published the findings
3.examined the results 4.gathered the information
5.learn what treatment 6.nervous anxiety
7.illegal drugs 8.less likely to admit
9.with serious disorders 10.prevent many serious cases later
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 8 Life Outside of Work
1.B 2.A 3.C 4.D 5.D 6.D 7.C 8.B 9. A 10.B
1.B 2.A 3.D 4.A 5.C
Understanding a Passage
1.B 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.B
1.the light had gone 2.should remember
3.don’t go the right way 4.when we suffer defeat
5.you’re really tested 6.on the highest mountain
7.served this government and this country 8.always give your best
9.high hopes and good spirits 10. in our hearts
Task 1 1.C 2.D 3.D 4.D 5.B
Task 2 1.A 2.C 3.B 4.B 5.C
1.how much they expect to learn 2.dishonest reporting
3.are charged with 4.under pressure
5.include a warning 6.should not be held responsible
7.have influenced that decision 8.no reason to s
9.estimate earnings 10.to hide bad news
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 9 Only Losers Quit
1C 2.D 3.A 4.A 5.D 6.B 7.A 8.B 9.C 10.C
1.B 2.D 3.A 4.C 5.C
Understanding a Passage
1.B 2.D 3.C 4.C 5.B
1.e on in 2.sweetheart 3.a part of life
4.your own destiny 5.God gave you 6.figure that out
7.a box of chocolates 8.explaining 9.had got the cancer
10.with little flowers on it
Task 1 1.A 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.B
Task 2 1.C 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.A
1.develop a plan 2.rece cancer rates
3.cancer prevention and control 4.a leading cause of death
5.on the rise 6.cancer-procing chemicals
7.aging populations 8.most mon forms,
9.more action is needed 10.early cancer testing
新视野大学英语听说教程【第二版】第二册Unit 10 The Tragedy of War
1.F 2.F 3.T
1.D 2.B 3.B 4.D 5.C 6.C 7.A 8.B 9.C 10.A
1.D 2.C 3.A 4.B 5.D
Understanding a Passage
1.B 2.C 3.D 4.D 5.A
1.guarded 2.a greater responsibility 3.Marines
4.probably saved lives 5.existence 6.parties
7. honor 8.spent defending something 9.freedom
Listening and Discussion
1. A Japanese pen friend. 2. He had always criticized the nuclear attacks.
3. Around 140,000 people. 4. Open-ended.
Task 1 1.D 2.D 3.C 4.A 5.B
Task 2 1.C 2.B 3.D 4.B 5.A
1.monthly payments 2.more money than
3.is expected to 4.be out of money
5.born out of 6.pay for itself
7.start with 8.survived the death
9.for the poor 10.all federal workers
答案没有 不过我有mp3版的音讯 应该大三了吧快 我比你高一级 现在正在努力学这本书 编的不错 希望对你有帮助
d f a h g c b e
Basic listening practice
Task 1 BCDCB
Task 2 CDCAB
Task 3 downtown loan security agreed against underground settle
That’ll be $5000 in principal and $20.30 in interest.
We are very happy to have had your business, and this transaction has worked out very nicely, but we are a little confused.
Where else in Manhattan can I park my car for o weeks for only $20.30 and expect it to be there where I return?
(1) trouble (2) sales (3) save (4) backed (5) salary (6) private medical (7) 100000 pounds (8) another (9) money (10) hire (11) debt (12) face the facts (13) securing (14) difficult (15) contacts (16) schoolboy excuse
Further listening and speaking
Task 1 environment economy minus enterprise benefits demands balanced,sustainable generations
Task 2 CDDAB
Task 3 BABAA
Viewing and speaking
(1) marketing campaign (2) huge challenge (3) market (4) football (5) eight new teams (6) time-consuming (7) the marketing and the anisation
Unit 9 Unit test
(1)-(7)measure modest showed weakest reluctant economist Analysts
(8)Inflation rose at a relatively speedy 3.3 percent rate in the second quarter, the same as at the start of the year
(9)Other data on Friday showed consumer spirits have brightened a bit this month while business activity has picked up in the Midwest
(10)When you bine the first quarter and the second quarter, we're growing at 3.75 percent, which is a very strong, sustainable growth rate
Task 1 future needs shares risk banks 30 a half rate capital loss interchangeably savings
1) they must sort out their cash flow problem by selling a part of the business to investors.
2) it's a realistic amount to take this manufacturing business forward.
3) they must update their initial business plan
4) it's time to put on the suit and try to sell part of Cyclepods to an investor.
5) so I'll have to... maybe get the heavies in or something.
6) The most important thing James needs to do over the next o months is to raise cash
7) Cyclepods can't do anything without an updated business plan.
8) it's back to basics for a fun evening of number crunching and spread sheets,
9) it's time for a professional and considered rehearsal to get his sales pitch just right.
10) Presentation skills are going to be crucial
Further listening and speaking
1. He has been following the roller coaster ride of his stock portfolio and it's driving him mad.
2. Stocks are pretty hard to predict. So she has put her money into hedge funds.
3. A hedge is a way of recing risk. A hedge fund is a pany that creates a stock portfolio that tries to balance the market activity.
4. Analysts examine stocks to assess which ones are likely to go up, and which will likely go down.
5. He says that if he leaves his money with a fund manager, perhaps the manager can trade his stocks in a more profitable way.
Viewing and speaking
Task 1 cash easy results pay bills head 26% close the deal figures idea plan fine business guide voting rights say strong point investment 150000 26%
Unit 10 Unit test
(1)-(7)indivial owned managed invest ownership shareholders investors
(8)shareholders are often able to own a greater and more diverse number of stocks than if they invested directly in the stock market
(9)the investment management pany sponsoring the fund issues new shares to investors and buys back shares from investors wishing to leave the fund
(10)The sponsor does not buy back or issue shares after a closed-end fund is launched, so the investor must trade them through a broker
A heated discussion about whether men are braver than women is settled in a rather unexpected way.
The Dinner Party
I first heard this tale in India, where is told as if true -- though any naturalist would know it couldn't be. Later someone told me that the story appeared in a magazine shortly before the First World War. That magazine story, and the person who wrote it, I have never been able to track down.
The country is India. A colonial official and his wife are giving a large dinner party. They are seated with their guests -- officers and their wives, and a visiting American naturalist -- in their spacious dining room, which has a bare marble floor, open rafters and wide glass doors opening onto a veranda.
A spirited discussion springs up between a young girl who says that women have outgrown the jumping-on-a-chair-at-the-sight-of-a-mouse era and a major who says that they haven't.
"A woman's reaction in any crisis," the major says, "is to scream. And while a man may feel like it, he has that ounce more of control than a woman has. And that last ounce is what really counts."
The American does not join in the argument but watches the other guests. As he looks, he sees a strange expression come over the face of the hostess. She is staring straight ahead, her muscles contracting slightly. She motions to the native boy standing behind her chair and whispers something to him. The boy's eyes widen: he quickly leaves the room.
Of the guests, none except the American notices this or sees the boy place a bowl of milk on the veranda just outside the open doors.
The American comes to with a start. In India, milk in a bowl means only one thing -- t for a snake. He realizes there must be a cobra in the room. He looks up at the rafters -- the likeliest place -- but they are bare. Three corners of the room are empty, and in the fourth the servants are waiting to serve the next course. There is only one place left -- under the table.
His first impulse is to jump back and warn the others, but he knows the commotion would frighten the cobra into striking. He speaks quickly, the tone of his voice so commanding that it silences everyone.
"I want to know just what control everyone at this table has. I will count three hundred -- that's five minutes -- and not one of you is to move a muscle. Those who move will forfeit 50 rupees. Ready?"
The 20 people sit like stone images while he counts. He is saying "...two hundred and eighty..." when, out of the corner of his eye, he sees the cobra emerge and make for the bowl of milk. Screams ring out as he jumps to slam the veranda doors safely shut.
"You were right, Major!" the host exclaims. "A man has just shown us an example of perfect self-control."
"Just a minute," the American says, turning to his hostess. "Mrs. Wynnes, how did you know that cobra was in the room?"
A faint smile lights up the woman's face as she replies: "Because it was crawling across my foot."
a. with strong, excited, and often angry feelings 热烈的;激烈的
a. not expected 意外的
n. one who makes a special study of plants or animals outdoors 博物学家(尤指直接观察动植物者)
ad. Soon; (in) a little time 不久，马上
a. of or related to a colony or colonies 殖民地的`
a. big; having much space 广阔的;宽阔的
a. not covered (with a carpet); empty 不铺地毯的;赤裸的;光秃的
n. one of the sloping beams that support 椽
prep. to a position or point on 到...之上; 向...之上
a. full of spirit; lively
vt. leave behind, as one grows older or more mature 长大得使...不再适用; 成长得不再要
n. time of difficulty, danger, etc. 危机
n. discussion by persons who disagree; dispute 争论;辩论
vi. become shorter or smaller 收缩
ad. a little 稍微地
vi. give a signal by moving the hand or head 打手势;点(或摇)头示意
v. make or become wider
n. food used to attract fish, animals, or birds so that they may be caught 诱饵
n. poisonous snake found in India and Africa 眼镜蛇
a. probable 可能的
n. sudden wish to do sth. 冲动
n. noisy confusion or excitement 混乱;骚动
n. quality of voice or music 语气;音调
a. authoritative 威严的
vt. suffer the loss of (sth.) as a punishment (作为惩罚而)失去
n. monetary unit of India, Pakistan, etc. 卢比
n. statue 雕像
vi. come or appear (from somewhere)
vt. shut loudly and with force 砰地关上
n. man who receives guests 男主人
a. weak, indistinct 微弱的;不明显的
vi move slowly by pulling the body along the ground 爬行
Learning about English
Part I Pre-Reading Task
Listen to the recording two or three times and then think over the following questions:
1. What is the passage about?
2. What's your impression of the English language?
3. Can you give one or two examples to illustrate(说明)the messiness of the English language?
4. Can you guess what the texts in this unit are going to be about?
The following words in the recording may be new to you:
Some languages resist the introction of new words. Others, like English, seem to welcome them. Robert MacNeil looks at the history of English and comes to the conclusion that its tolerance for change represents deeply rooted ideas of freedom.
THE GLORIOUS MESSINESS OF ENGLISH
The story of our English language is typically one of massive stealing from other languages. That is why English today has an estimated vocabulary of over one million words, while other major languages have far fewer.
French, for example, has only about 75,000 words, and that includes English expressions like snack bar and hit parade. The French, however, do not like borrowing foreign words because they think it corrupts their language. The government tries to ban words from English and declares that walkman is not desirable; so they invent a word, balladeur, which French kids are supposed to say instead — but they don't.
Walkman is fascinating because it isn't even English. Strictly speaking, it was invented by the Japanese manufacturers who put two simple English words together to name their proct. That doesn't bother us, but it does bother the French. Such is the glorious messiness of English. That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words from anywhere, explains the richness of English and why it has become, to a very real extent, the first truly globallanguage.
How did the language of a small island off the coast of Europe become the language of the planet — more widely spoken and written than any other has ever been? The history of English is present in the first words a child learns about identity (I, me, you); possession (mine, yours); the body (eye, nose, mouth); size (tall, short); and necessities (food, water). These words all come from Old English or Anglo-Saxon English, the core of our language. Usually short and direct, these are words we still use today for the things that really matter to us.
Great speakers often use Old English to arouse our emotions. For example, ring World War II, Winston Churchill made this speech, stirring the courage of his people against Hitler's armies positioned to cross the English Channel: "We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender."
Virtually every one of those words came from Old English, except the last — surrender, which came from Norman French. Churchill could have said, "We shall never give in," but it is one of the lovely — and powerful — opportunities of English that a writer can mix, for effect, different words from different backgrounds. Yet there is something direct to the heart that speaks to us from the earliest words in our language.
When Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 B.C., English did not exist. The Celts, who inhabited the land, spoke languages that survive today mainly as Welsh. Where those languages came from is still a mystery, but there is a theory.
Two centuries ago an English judge in India noticed that several words in Sanskrit closely resembled some words in Greek and Latin. A systematic study revealed that many modern languages descended from a commonparent language, lost to us because nothing was written down.
Identifying similar words, linguists have come up with what they call an Indo-European parent language, spoken until 3500 to 2000 B.C. These people had common words for snow, bee and wolf but no word for sea. So some scholars assume they lived somewhere in north-central Europe, where it was cold. Traveling east, some established the languages of India and Pakistan, and others drifted west toward the gentler climates of Europe, Some who made the earliest move westward became known as the Celts, whom Caesar's armies found in Britain.
New words came with the Germanic tribes — the Angles, the Saxons, etc. — that slipped across the North Sea to settle in Britain in the 5th century. Together they formed what we call Anglo-Saxon society.
The Anglo-Saxons passed on to us their farming vocabulary, including sheep, ox, earth, wood, field and work. They must have also enjoyed themselves because they gave us the word laughter.
The next big influence on English was Christianity. It enriched the Anglo-Saxon vocabulary with some 400 to 500 words from Greek and Latin, including angel, disciple and martyr.
Then into this relatively peaceful land came the Vikings from Scandinavia. They also brought to English many words that begin with sk, like sky and skirt. But Old Norse and English both survived, and so you can rear a child (English) or raise a child (Norse). Other such pairs survive: wish and want, craft and skill, hide and skin. Each such addition gave English more richness, more variety.
Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in 1066, when the Normans conquered England. The country now had three languages: French for the nobles, Latin for the churches and English for the common people. With three languages competing, there were sometimes different terms for the same thing. For example, Anglo-Saxons had the word kingly, but after the Normans, royal and sovereign entered the language as alternatives. The extraordinary thing was that French did not replace English. Over three centuries English graally swallowed French, and by the end of the 15th century what had developed was a modified, greatly enriched language — Middle English — with about 10,000 "borrowed" French words.
Around 1476 William Caxton set up a printing press in England and started a communications revolution. Printing brought into English the wealth of new thinking that sprang from the European Renaissance. Translations of Greek and Roman classics were poured onto the printed page, and with them thousands of Latin words like capsule and habitual, and Greek words like catastrophe and thermometer. Today we still borrow from Latin and Greek to name new inventions, like video, television and cyberspace.
As settlers landed in North America and established the United States, English found itself with two sources — American and British. Scholars in Britain worried that the language was out of control, and some wanted to set up an academy to decide which words were proper and which were not. Fortunately their idea has never been put into practice.
That tolerance for change also represents deeply rooted ideas of freedom. Danish scholar Otto Jespersen wrote in 1905, "The English language would not have been what it is if the English had not been for centuries great respecters of the liberties of each indivial and if everybody had not been free to strike out new paths for himself."
I like that idea. Consider that the same cultural soil procing the English language also nourished the great principles of freedom and rights of man in the modern world. The first shoots sprang up in England, and they grew stronger in America. The English-speaking peoples have defeated all efforts to build fences around their language.
Indeed, the English language is not the special preserve of grammarians, language police, teachers, writers or the intellectual elite. English is, and always has been, the tongue of the common man.
New Words and Expressions
a. large in scale, amount, or degree 大量的，大规模的
n. a small meal 快餐，点心
a weekly listing of the current best-selling pop records 流行唱片目录
vt. cause errors to appear in; cause to act dishonestly in return for personal gains 讹用，使(语言)变得不标准;腐蚀，贿赂
vt. forbid (sth.) officially 禁止，取缔
n. a small cassette player 随身听
a. of great interest or attraction 迷人的，有极大吸引力的
to a (very real, certain, etc.) extent
to the degree specified 在(极大，某种)程度上
vt. provoke (a particular feeling or attitude) 唤起，激起
v. give in 投降
ad. for the most part, almost 差不多，几乎
vt. enter with armed forces 侵入，侵略
vt. live in (a place) 居住于
a., n. 威尔士语(的)，威尔士人的
vt. be like or similar to 与…相似
a. done according to a system 有系统的
vi. come down (from a source); go down 起源于;下来
n. a person who studies languages 语言学家
vt. cause to be, set up 建立，确立
vi. move or go somewhere in a slow casual way 漂泊
n. (an area or a region with) a regular pattern of weather conditions 气候(区)
pass (sth.) on to (sb.)
hand or give (sth.) to (sb.) 将…传给…
n. a person or thing added 增加的人(或物)
n., a. 诺曼人(的.)，诺曼语(的)，诺曼文化的
v. take possession and control by force; defeat 征服
a. (of power) without limit, highest; (of a nation) fully independent 拥有最高统治权的，至高无上的;拥有主权的
n. one of two or more possibilities 供选择的东西
vt. change slightly 修改，更改
vt. make rich or richer; improve 使富裕，使丰富
n. a work of art recognized as having lasting value 经典作品
a. done as a habit, regular, usual 惯常的
n. a sudden great disaster 大灾难
n., a. 录像(的)
n. the notional environment in which communication over computer networks occurs 网络空间，虚拟空间
a. not controlled by other people or things 独立的，自主的
out of control
ad. by good luck 幸运地，幸亏
put into practice
n. freedom 自由
create, proce 创造，开创
a. of or involving culture 文化的
vt. keep from harm, damage, etc., protect; save 保护，保存
n., a. 知识分子(的)
n. the group regarded as the best (总称)出类拔萃的人，精英
温斯顿·丘吉尔(1874 — 1965，英国政治家、首相)
希特勒(1889 — 1945，纳粹德国元首)
尤利乌斯·凯撒(100 — 44BC，古罗马将军、政治家)
(8 — 10世纪时劫掠欧洲西北海岸的)北欧海盗
奥托·叶斯柏森(1860 — 1943)
Language sense Enhancement
1. Read aloud paragraphs 17-19 and learn by heart.
2. Read aloud the following poem:
There are no handles upon a language
Whereby men take hold of it
And mark it with signs for its remembrance.
It is a river, this language,
Once in a thousand years
Breaking a new course
Changing its way to the ocean.
It is a mountain effluvia
Moving to valleys
And from nation to nation
Crossing borders and mixing.
3. Read the following quotations. Learn them by heart if you can. You might need to look up new words in a dictionary.
The English language is the sea which receives tributaries from every region under heaven.
—— Ralph Waldo Emerson
Language ought to be the joint creation of poets and manual workers.
—— Georqe Orwell
England and America are two countries separated by the same language.
—— Georqe Bernard Shaw
4. Read the following joke and see if you can tell what caused the misunderstanding of the technician's words by the woman. You might need to look up new words in a dictionary.
An office technician got a call from a user. The user told the technician that her computer was not working. She described the problem and the technician concluded that the computer needed to be brought in and serviced.
He told her to "Unplug the power cord and bring it up here and I will fix it."
About fifteen minutes later she showed up at his door with the power cord in her hand.;
原文：English is known as a world language, regularly used by many nations whose English is not their first language. Like other languages, English has changed greatly. The history of the English language can be divided into three main periods: Old English, Middle English and Modern English. The English language started with the invasion of Britain by three Germanic tribes ring the 5th century AD, and they contributed greatly to the formation of the English language. During the medieval and early modern periods, the influence of English spread throughout the British Isles, and from the early 17th century its influence began to be felt throughout the world. The processes of European exploration and colonization for several centuries led to significant change in English. Today, American English is particularly influential, e to the popularity of American cinema, television, music, trade and technology, including the Internet.
翻译：Chinese calligraphy is a unique art and the unique art treasure in the world. The formation and development of the Chinese calligraphy is closely related to the emergence and evolution of Chinese characters. In this long evolutionary process, Chinese characters have not only played an important role in exchanging ideas and transmitting culture but also developed into a unique art form. Calligraphic works well reflect calligraphers' personal feelings, knowledge, self-cultivation, personality, and so forth, thus there is an expression that "seeing the calligrapher's handwriting is like seeing the person". As one of the treasures of Chinese culture, Chinese calligraphy shines splendidly in the world's treasure house of culture and art.
原文：A MOOC (massive open online course) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web. MOOCs are a recent development in distance ecation and have now become a surging trend in higher ecation. These classes are aimed at expanding a university's reach from thousands of tuition-paying students who live in town, to millions of students around the world. In addition to traditional course materials, MOOCs provide interactive user forums to support interactions between students and professors. MOOCs can encourage communication among participants who bring a variety of viewpoints, knowledge, and skills to the course; inspire people to "try on" subjects that they wouldn't otherwise pursue or even try on ecation itself; provide multiple ways to engage with course material, encouraging multimodal (多模式的) learning that can address the needs of learners with a variety of learning styles; and inspire better teaching and use of technologies for face-to-face courses.
翻译：In recent years, with the development of Internet technology, the construction of digital ecation resources of our country has made great achievements. Many universities have set up their own digital learning platforms, and digital teaching is playing an increasingly important role in ecation. Compared with the traditional way of teaching, the digital way has a lot of advantages. On one hand, digital teaching makes global sharing of teaching resources possible; on the other hand, it expands the learner's study time and space to learn, allowing people to get access to the digital virtual schools through the Internet anytime and anywhere. These advantages make it possible for people to shift from one-time learning to lifelong learning.
原文：As an important part of the American culture value system, "indivialism" is admired by most American people. Americans view the family as a group whose primary purpose is to advance the happiness of indivial members. In contrast to many other cultures, the primary responsibility of the American family member is not to advance the family as a group, either socially or economically. What would be best for the family is not usually considered to be as important as what would be best for the indivial. With freedom comes the responsibility to care for oneself, for it is the freedom of choice that carries with it the responsibility: to accept the consequences of the choices. Many Americans give their children a lot of freedom because they want them to be independent and self-reliant. Along with the American emphasis on indivial freedom, the belief in equality between parents and children also has had a strong effect on the family.
原文：孝道（filial piety）是中国古代社会的基本道德规范（code of ethics）。中国人把孝视为人格之本、家庭和睦之本、国家安康之本。由于孝道是儒家伦理思想的核心，它成了中国社会千百年来维系家庭关系的道德准则。它毫无疑问是中华民族的一种传统美德。孝道文化是一个复合概念，内容丰富，涉及面广。它既有文化理念，又有制度礼仪（institutional etiquette）。一般来说，它指社会要求子女对父母应尽的义务，包括尊敬、关爱、赡养老人等等。孝道是古老的"东方文明"之根本。
翻译：Filial piety is the basic code of ethics in ancient Chinese society. Chinese people consider filial piety as the essence of a person's integrity, family harmony, and the nation's well-being. With filial piety being the core of Confucian ethics, it has been the moral standard for the Chinese society to maintain the family relationship for thousands of years. It's undoubtedly a traditional Chinese virtue. The culture of filial piety is a complex concept, rich in content and wide in range. It includes not only cultural ideas but also institutional etiquettes. Generally speaking, it refers to the obligation of children to their parents required by the society, including respect, care, support for the elderly and so forth. Filial piety is fundamental to the ancient "Oriental civilization".
原文：Valentine's Day on February 14 is celebrated in various American and European countries. It is a holiday of love and romance usually by exchanging valentines or love tokens between lovers. There are different origins regarding the festival. One legend goes that the Romans put a priest named Saint Valentine into prison for refusing to believe in the Roman gods. On February 14, Valentine was put to death not only because he was Christian, but also because he had cured the jailer's daughter of blindness. The night before he was executed he wrote her a farewell letter signed "From your Valentine". Later, February 14 became a holiday for people to show affection for their loved ones. Today, people celebrate Valentine's Day in different ways, sending greeting cards and flowers, giving chocolate or other gifts, or joining in romantic dinners. The holiday has now become popular all over the world. In China the festival is also becoming increasingly popular with young people.
原文：农历七月初七是中国的七夕节 (Qixi Festival)，是中国传统节日中最具浪漫色彩的一个节日。一些大的商家每年都举办不同的活动，年轻人也送礼物给他们的情人。因此，七夕节被认为是中国的“情人节”(Valentine's Day)。七夕节来自牛郎与织女（Cowherd and Weaving Maid）的传说。相传，每年的这个夜晚，天上的织女都会与牛郎相会。所以，在七夕的夜晚，人们可以看到牛郎织女在银河 （the Milky Way）相会。姑娘们也会在这一天晚上向天上的织女乞求智慧，以获得美满姻缘。但随着时代的变迁，这些活动正在消失，唯有标志着忠贞爱情的牛郎织女的传说一直流传民间。
翻译：July 7th on the Chinese calendar is Chinese Qixi Festival, the most romantic of all the traditional Chinese holidays. Every year, some big businesses organize various activities, and young people send gifts to their lovers. As a result, the Qixi Festival is considered to be Chinese "Valentine's Day". The Qixi Festival is derived from the legend of Cowherd and Weaving Maid. The legend holds that on this particular night every year the Weaving Maid in heaven meets with Cowherd. So, people can see Cowherd and Weaving Maid meeting in the Milky Way on the night of Qixi. On this night, girls would also beg Weaving Maid for some wisdom for a happy marriage. But, with the changing of times, these activities are diminishing. All that remains is the legend of Cowherd and Weaving Maid, a sign of faithful love, continuously circulated among the folk.
In this article the author describes what happened to her one night and what happened to her one night and her feelings about it.
拍裂There's Only Luck
My mind went numb when I saw the gun pointing against the car window as we pulled out of the garage: This can't be happening to me. Then I felt the gun, cold, against my head, and I heard my friend Jeremy saying, "What do you want? Take my wallet," but at the time I thought of nothing.
I remember being vaguely annoyed when the gunman pulled me from the car by the hair. I remember the walk to the house - Jeremy, me, the two men with two guns. I remember the fear and anger in the gunmen's voices because Jeremy was being slow, and I remember wondering why he waas being slow. I did not realize that Jeremy had thrown the keys into the shrubbery. But I remember that sound of the gun hitting Jeremy's head and the feeling as the man who had hold of my hair released me. And I remember the split second when I realized he was looking at Jeremy, and I remember wondering how far I could run before he pulled the trigger. But I was already running, and upon reaching the car across the street, I didn't crouch behind it but screamed instead.
I remember thinking there was something absurdly melodramatic about screaming "Help, help!" at eight o'clock on a Tuesday evening in December and changing my plea to the more specific "Help, let me in, please let me in!" But the houses were cold, closed, unfriendly, and I ran on until I heard Jeremy's screams behind me announcing that our attackers had fled.
The neighbors who had not opened their doors to us came out with baseball bats and helped Jeremy find his glasses and keys. In a group they were very brave. We waited for the cops to come until someone said to someone else that the noodles were getting cold, and I said politely, "Please go and eat. We're O.K."
I was happy to see them go. They had been talking of stiffer sentences for criminals, of bringing back the death penalty and how the President is going to clean up the country. I was thinking, they could be saying all of this over my dead body, and I still feel that stiffer sentences wouldn't change a thing. In a rush all the rage I should have felt for my attackers was directed against these contented people standing in front of their warm, cozy homes talking about all the guns they were going to buy. What good would guns have been to Jeremy and me?
People all over the neighborhood had called to report our screams, and the police turned out in force twenty minutes later. They were ill-tempered about what was, to them, much ado about nothing. After all, Jeremy was hardly hurt, and we were hopeless when it came to identification. "Typical," said one cop when we couldn't even agree on how tall the men were. Both of us were able to describe the guns in horrifying detail, but the two policemen who stayed to make the report didn't think that would be much help.
The cops were matter-of-fact about the whole thing. The thin one said, "That was a stupid thing to do, throwing away the keys. When a man has a gun against your head you do what you're told." Jeremy looked properly sheepish.
Then the fat cop same up and the thin one went to look around the outside of the house. "That was the best thing you could have done, throwing away the keys," he said. "If you had gone into the house with them…" His voice trailed off. "They would have hurt her" - he jerked his head toward me - "and killed you both." Jeremy looked happier. "Look," said the fat cop kindly, "there's no right of wrong in the situation. There's just luck."
All that sleepless night I replayed the moment those black gloves came up to the car window. How long did the whole thing last? Three minutes, five, eight? No matter how many hours of my life I may spend reliving it, I know there is no way to prepare for the next time - no intelligent response to a gun. The fat cop was right: There's only luck. The next time I might end up dead.
And I'm sure there will be a next time. It can happen anywhere, anytime, to anyone. Security is an illusion; there is no safety in locks or in guns. Guns make some people feel safe and some people feel strong, but they're fooling themselves.
n. having lost the power of feeling or moving 失去感觉的，麻木的
n. building in which a car is kept 汽车库
n. leather pocket-case for paper money, cards, etc. 皮夹
ad. not clearly 模糊地
vt. make rather angry 使恼怒
n. a man armed with a gun, esp. a criminal or terrorist 持枪歹徒
n. low bushes forming a mass or group 灌木丛
vt. set free 松开;释放
vt. divide into parts 劈开
very brief moment of time; instant 瞬间，一刹那
vi. lower the body to the ground 蹲伏
ad. foolishly; ridiculously 愚蠢地，荒唐可笑地
a. exciting in effect, often too much so to be thought real 感情夸张;闹剧式的
n. asking for sth. with strong feelings 恳求
a. definite; not general 明确的;具体的
v. run away (from) 逃走;逃离
n. (informal) policeman
n. (usu. pl.) 面条
a. severe 严厉
n. someone who has broken the law 罪犯
n. punishment 惩罚
n. great anger 狂怒
a. satisfied; happy 满足的
a. warm and comfortable 暖和舒适的
a. (often) angry or annoyed 脾气坏的;易怒的
n. trouble and excitement 忙乱
a. giving no cause for hope; very bad or unskilled 没有希望的;无能的
vt. frighten; shock very much 使恐怖;使震惊
n. small, particular fact 细节
a. concerned with the facts; practical 注重事实的;讲究实际的
a. foolish or embarrassed by awareness of a fault 局促不安的
vi. grow graally weaker, dimmer, etc.
vt. pull or lift suddenly 猛拉;猛抬
vt. play (match, recording, etc.) over again 重放
vi. go on
vt. experience again, esp. in the imagination
a. clever; rational 聪明的;明智的
n. action done in answer; answer 反应;回答
n. safety, freedom from danger or fear 安全，平安
n. false perception; (the seeing of) sth. that does not really exist 错觉;幻觉
PHRASES & EXPRESSIONS
pull out (of)
move out (of) (车，船等)驶出
have (get, catch) hold of
restore, reintroce 恢复
clean thoroughly and remove anything unwanted 彻底打扫;整肃
appear; come or go out to see or do sth. 出来，出动
in large numbers 大批地，人数众多地
much ado about nothing
a lot of unnecessary explaining, of excitement about things not serious or unimportant 无事生非;小题大作
reach (a particular point) in explaining, etc. 谈到(某一点)
have the same opinion on
giving a lot of facts 详细地
(voice, etc.) become graally weaker and fade into silence (声音等)逐渐变弱
get ready for
and up 结束，告终